Showing posts sorted by relevance for query protein. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query protein. Sort by date Show all posts

Protein deficiency: Seven symptoms you’re not getting enough - including hair loss

Like carbohydrates and fat, protein is a ‘macronutrient’, meaning that you need to ensure sufficient consumption of it in your diet to function and maintain optimal health. 

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) on protein is 0.8g per kilogram of bodyweight per day for an average 65kg person, this means you need to achieve at least 52g of protein in your daily diet.

But many people fail to recognise the importance of protein in our body and neglect to eat the sufficient quantity - a diet that is chronically deficient in this nutrient can lead to a variety of unwanted health issues. 

Liam Mahoney, nutritionist from Active Nutrition brand, Grenade, has revealed the seven signs to watch out for you’re not getting enough protein. 

Hair Loss

Hair loss can occasionally be caused by lack of protein in the diet, due to its main structural component being protein itself, according to Liam Mahoney. 

He said: “Often, people go on crash diets that exclude protein or have abnormal eating habits which causes them to develop protein malnutrition. When this happens, the body will save the little amount of protein it has left by shifting growing hairs into the resting phase. Usually, this lasts for around three months, and then the hairs shed and are replaced by new strands. However, if you don’t have enough protein in your diet, a large number of strands will enter the resting phase simultaneously, causing hair loss to become evident.” 

Food cravings 

Food cravings and constant snacking may be a consequence of a high-carb/sugar and low protein diet. When we don't give our bodies a healthy supply of protein, our blood sugar levels can spike and then rapidly fall, leaving us craving anything that will quickly bring it back up, says Liam. 

He added: “This is where protein packed snacks can really help. For ease and convenience, I recommend carrying a high quality protein bar, such as Carb Killa from Grenade (www.grenade.com) with you, this will fight of the urge to have an unhealthy sweet treat, but also keep you feeling fuller for longer.”

Brain fog 

Our blood sugar level can really affect how we feel and how our brains process information, so it's important to keep those levels stable to prevent brain fog. In fact, poor concentration and a lack of motivation can also indicate a poor protein level in the body.

Liam said: “Ensuring you have enough protein in your diet can boost work performance as well as learning and motor skills, whereas inadequate protein consumption has the ability to do the opposite.”

Slow recovery from injury 

A lack of protein in your diet can increase the risk of muscle loss, falling, slow bone healing, bone weakness, fractures and even osteoporosis.

Liam explained: “Protein is the fuel for your muscles, so they will suffer if you deprive them of it. The initial effect of low protein intake is muscle wasting, accompanied by increasing weakness, and gradually, this diet can cause your body to lose lean muscle mass. As a result of this, you will find that your body does not recover as quickly from injury as it might have before, due to your weakened muscles.” 

Low energy 

It’s clear that protein is needed for muscle growth, but it is also important for sustaining your energy and motivation. 

Liam said: “A low protein diet can result in muscle wasting, fatigue and even weight gain. You can even find yourself working out more, but seeing less results as your diet is not providing you with the adequate nutrients and giving you the energy that you need to complete a productive workout.” 

Poor sleep 

Liam explained: “Your brain has the ability to control all of the hormones which are necessary for a good night’s sleep. When your body lacks the protein necessary to maintain a healthy brain, it can lead to a hormonal imbalance which will ultimately have an effect on your sleep.” 

Weakened immune system 

Protein helps keep our immune system cells healthy and working.

Liam said: “Our immune cells need enough protein to repair themselves and to multiply. Without enough protein, we're at a much higher risk for coming down with any germs we're exposed to.”

Vitamin D, commonly known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’, is considered to be one of the most important vitamins required for the functioning of a healthy body. So what are the symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency?



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Gym workout diet: Build muscle by eating THESE kind of eggs before you exercise

Gyms are likely to be packed from tomorrow, but make the most of your new membership by ensuring you are fuelling yourself with the right diet.

Exercising to build muscle is a focus for many people, and it is particularly important for older people at risk of frailty.

From the age of 30 years, muscle declines by as much as three to five per cent each decade.

Enjoying eggs for breakfast could help combat this, according to new research.

Scientists from the University of Illinois have discovered that eating whole eggs - as opposed to just egg whites - is better for muscle building and repair.

Consuming just the whites of an egg has been popular in the past for weight loss and lowering cholesterol.

However, people who consumed 18g of protein from the entire egg got more out of doing resistance exercise than those who consumed the same amount of protein from just egg whites.

In fact, post-workout muscle-building was 40 per cent greater if the former, rather than the latter, was consumed.

Egg yolks not only contain protein, but also key nutrients.

“This study suggests that eating protein within its most natural food matrix tends to be more beneficial to our muscles as opposed to getting one's protein from isolated protein sources," said Professor Nicholas Burd, study leader from the University of Illinois.

“We saw that the ingestion of whole eggs immediately after resistance exercise resulted in greater muscle-protein synthesis than the ingestion of egg whites.

"There's a lot of stress on protein nutrition in modern society, and research is showing that we need more protein in the diet than we once thought to maintain health.”

Eggs are naturally high in protein, as well as vitamin D and the antioxidants choline and beta carotene.

How you cook your eggs can also influence how good they are for you.

An expert recently revealed to Express.co.uk whether scrambled, boiled or poached was most healthy.

Rob Hobson, Healthspan’s head of nutrition and author of The Detox Kitchen Bible: “If you are watching your weight, poaching and hard boiling are going to contain fewer calories and fat compared to scrambled or fried which are often cooked using oils, butter and cream.”



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Secret to a longer life REVEALED: Low protein diet can add DECADES to your lifespan

The rise in average life expectancy in the UK was revealed to be grinding to a halt earlier this year.

Despite a century of continuous progress, research by University College London showed that increases in life expectancy had halved since 2010 in England.

However, making a simple tweak to your diet could add years - if not decades - to your life.

A study by the Francis Crick Institute in London has revealed that consuming a low protein diet could extend your lifespan.

By studying fruit flies, researchers discovered that those raised on a low protein diet in early life could live over twice as long as their peers.

Since the insects share more than two thirds of disease genes with humans, scientists believe it could indicate what might happen to our longevity too.

Researchers found that flies raised on a low protein diet during the early part of their life, and who then swapped to a standard diet, lived much longer than their counterparts fed on a standard diet throughout.

“There is evidence in humans and other mammals that a mother's diet can alter the risk of her offspring developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes much later in life, but the genetic processes underlying this effect remain to be identified,” said Alex Gould, senior author from the Francis Crick Institute.

“Obviously fruit flies are not humans, and it's important to be clear that our results in flies are certainly not a recommendation that expecting mothers should eat a low-protein diet."

Protein is a a type of macronutrient essential for growth and repair of the body and maintenance of good health, according to the British Nutrition Foundation.

High amounts can be found in foods such as eggs, chicken, beef and yoghurt.

But the findings suggest that not going over board on protein intake could help humans live longer.

Further studies will be required to conform whether there will be the same effect as in fruit flies.

Previous research from 2014 by the University of Southern California found that a high protein diet was linked to lower mortality.

Scientists discovered that adults between 50 to 65 who had a high protein intake experienced a 75 per cent increase in overall mortality and were four times more likely to die from cancer during the following 18 years than those who ate less protein.



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Dairy free diet: Milk intolerance sufferers could drink THIS type of cow’s MILK

Dairy free diets have become popular of late thanks to the trend for vegan eating, and because one in five Britons claim they struggle with milk.

Many of these people believe they are lactose intolerant, meaning that they are unable to fully digest a sugar - known as lactase - found in milk.

However, many people aren’t intolerant to lactose but still struggle to digest milk.

Scientists have discovered in a new study why this could be.

Research published today in the Nutrition Journal revealed that the A1 protein, found in cow’s milk, was to blame for triggering symptoms of milk intolerance.

Scientists discovered that by removing the A1 beta casein protein, leaving just the A2 beta casein, sufferers were able to drink milk without gastrointestinal symptoms.

“This is the largest human trial to date examining the differences between the impact of the A1 and A2 protein,” said Dr Anton Emmanuel, consultant gastroenterologist.

“It suggests that proteins found in dairy can have a significant impact on digestion, and that lactose may not be the only cause of gastrointestinal issues in those with an intolerance – around 60 per cent of the world’s population.”

Researchers concluded that for many people with milk intolerance it is not lactose causing the issue, but the A1 protein.

“This exciting new research on such a large sample is significant in that it suggests that many patients’ issues with dairy may in fact be specific to the A1 milk protein that is found in regular cows’ milk,” explained Dr Anthony Hobson, clinical director of the Functional Gut Clinic.

“A simple switch to milk containing only the A2 protein could be an important part of symptom management for those suffering from milk intolerance.

“Patients often come to us convinced that their digestive troubles are due to lactose intolerance – there is a lot of self-diagnosis taking place. 

“When we then test them for the condition and it comes back negative, they are lost as to what else the problem could be – but this could explain it.”

In the study, 1,200 people  who considered themselves to have lactose intolerance drunk milk containing only A2 beta casein, called a2 Milk.

They discovered that while people who drunk regular milk experienced “acute” symptoms often associated with  milk intolerance, they showed improvements when they consumed the A2 milk.

Signs of milk intolerance include bloating, gas, pain in the lower belly, diarrhoea and throwing up.



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Food component that reduces hunger may hold key in fight against obesity

Phenylalanine – a component of dietary protein – reduces food intake by affecting the release of appetite-regulating hormones in the gut, research shows. 

Experts believe that it may be the reason why diets that involve eating a lot of protein can be successful at promoting weight loss. 

However, high-protein diets such as Atkins and Dukan can be hard to maintain and may result in long-term health problems, it is claimed. 

The amino acid Phenylalanine is generated in the gut when protein is digested and has previously been shown to reduce appetite in rodents.  

To investigate its effects, scientists at Imperial College London studied the brain activity and eating habits of mice treated with the chemical. 

Phenylalanine was found to reduce food intake even at a dose 10 times lower than would be consumed daily as part of a high-protein diet. 

It also increased activation of an area of the brain known to be involved in regulating appetite. 

Lead researcher Mariana Norton said: “The next step is to establish whether Phenylalanine can drive similar appetite-reducing effects in humans. 

"Identifying the mechanisms that sense the protein may allow us to use drugs or functional foods to hijack appetite regulation – and treat obesity.” 



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High blood pressure diet: Adding THIS trendy ingredient to coffee could help REDUCE it

High blood pressure is a potentially-deadly condition that affects 31 per cent of men and 26 per cent of women in the UK.

Having elevated cholesterol levels raises your risk - but altering your diet to include oat milk could help.

Made from whole oats, it is a plant-based, dairy-free alternative to cow’s milk.

However, as well as being suitable for those with particular dietary intolerances or preferences, it could help lower cholesterol levels and therefore ward off high blood pressure.

“Oat milk contains more fibre than milk and some of the other alternatives,” said Cassandra Barns, a nutritionist.

“This includes a kind of fibre called beta glucan, which has been found to help control cholesterol levels.”

Beta glucan is found in the bran of common whole grains, like oats and barley.

She added that the drink is naturally sweet and creamy so it does not need added sugars or sweeteners.

But Barns warned that it contained “significantly less” protein than cow’s milk or soya milk.

Oat milk has about 1g per 100ml versus 3g per 100ml from other milks.

Another milk alternative higher in protein is almond milk, because it is produced from a nut not a grain.

Additionally, legumes, seeds, certain vegetables and soy products are all examples of other dairy-free items that are high in protein.

While consuming a large amount of animal protein has been linked to high levels of cholesterol, eating lots of plant-based fat and protein has been found to lower cholesterol.

Cholesterol is a fatty substance needed for making certain hormones, producing vitamin D, and building healthy cells.

If you have high cholesterol levels in your blood, the excess will stick to the walls of your arteries. 

Over time, this hardens and causes the arteries to stiffen and narrow, meaning that blood no longer flows through them as easily as it once did.

As your heart struggles to push blood around your body, it could lead to high blood pressure.



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Vegan diet warning: Beware THIS unexpected side-effect of SUDDENLY ditching meat and dairy

Vegan diets have grown in popularity in recent years, and involves removing everything from dairy and meat, to honey and eggs from your meals.

The rise has been attributed to environmental and health concerns, as well a host of celebrity fans including Natalie Portman and Jared Leto.

There is much evidence a plant-based diet is good for you - it has been linked to weight loss, increased energy, better heart health and lower risk of cancer.

However, cutting out several food groups at once can be detrimental to your health.

A sudden change in diet could cause short-term hair loss.

This is because adjusting to a diet without protein-rich meats and fish could affect the hair’s cell renewal and health.

“Protein is one of the most important nutrients for healthy hair,” said Cassandra Barns, a nutritionist.

“Keratin, a substance that provides the strength and structure of hair, is a protein, and our body makes it from the proteins that we eat.”

She suggested that if you want to remove animal protein from your diet to ensure you consume enough plant-based protein.

This could include replacing fish and eggs, with beans, lentils, nuts and seeds.

Another risk with embarking on a vegan diet, is deficiency in vitamin B12 and calcium.

It is due to a lack of dairy products, such as cheese, milk and yoghurt.

Vitamin B12 is important for a healthy immune system, while calcium is needed to help build and support your bone density and keep teeth strong.

Up your intake of these nutrients on a vegan diet by eating tofu, spinach and kale.

Or take a supplement, such as Nature’s Plus Source of Life Garden Vitamin B12.

However, positive side-effects you may experience by following a vegan diet include clear skin, due to lack of dairy, and better quality sleep, thanks to a diet full of nuts, leafy greens and oatmeal.



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Muscle gain diet: These are THREE reasons you SHOULD eat breakfast every day

Muscle loss can be particularly worrying for people as they get older, placing them at increased risk of hip fractures and other bone injuries.

Eating a nutritious breakfast can help, but many Britons aren’t optimising their first meal of the day, according to new research.

A Meridian Foods’ survey discovered that half spend fewer than ten minutes on breakfast, while one in ten don’t eat it at all.

“Skipping breakfast or choosing a less than optimal breakfast to fill rather than nourish increases the risk of nutritional deficiencies impacting both wellbeing and performance,” said Helen Money, nutritionist at Meridian.

“A nourishing breakfast does not have to be time consuming, just stirring nut butter into porridge increases B vitamins, iron, magnesium and zinc all of which are needed for energy creation.”

In order to ward off muscle loss, protein should be the key ingredient in your breakfast, according to James Haskell, international rugby player and Meridian sporting ambassador.

He said: “Protein is essential for repairing and rebuilding muscle broken down when exercising. 

“I personally include nut butters as part of my breakfast routine as they’re a rich source of natural protein which helps stimulate muscle growth and helps my body recover.”

Protein can also be found in eggs, fish, yoghurt and chicken.

Here are three other reasons why you should eat a good breakfast on a daily basis.

Diabetes

Research has found people who skip breakfast have higher glucose concentrations and markers of inflammation and insulin resistance after lunch.

According to the study by the University of Hohenheim in Germany, it causes chronic inflammation, which is known to affect insulin sensitivity, and could raise the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Heart disease

People who eat breakfast tend to have lower rates of heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, according to the American Heart Association.

Weight loss

As well as helping build muscle, a breakfast high in protein can help promote weight loss.

A study by Tel Aviv University discovered that it could keep people satisfied throughout the day and prevent spikes in blood sugar.



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Weight loss diet – FIVE tips to help you beat food and sugar cravings

If you’re overweight or obese, shedding a few pounds could lower your risk of some potentially serious health problems, according to the NHS.

Obesity increases your risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, strokes and type 2 diabetes.

You could gain health benefits from losing just five per cent of your body weight, if you keep it off.

But, one of the hardest parts of dieting is avoiding sugar cravings.

These five tips could help you avoid surrendering to your sweet tooth.

Drink water

Food cravings may be confused for feeling thirsty, according to nutritionist Adda Bjarnadottir.

“If you feel a sudden urge for a specific food, try drinking a large glass of water and wait a few minutes,” she said.

“You may find that the craving fades away, because your body was actually just thirsty.”

Drinking water before meals could reduce appetite and help with weight loss, she added.

Get extra sleep

Not getting enough sleep disrupts the hormones that let you know you’re hungry.

“Your appetite is largely affected by hormones that fluctuate throughout the day.

“Sleep deprivation disrupts the fluctuations, and may lead to poor appetite regulation and strong cravings.”

Eat more protein

Adding extra protein to your diet could prevent you from feeling hungry, a study has claimed.

“Eating more protein may reduce your appetite and keep you from overeating,” said Bjarnadottir.

“Another study in overweight men showed that increasing protein intake to 25 per cent of calories reduced cravings by 60 per cent.

"Additionally, the desire to snack at night was reduced by 50 per cent.”

Meal plan

You should try planning your meals for the week ahead.

Bjarnadottir said: “By already knowing what you're going to eat, you eliminate the factor of spontaneity and uncertainty.

If you don't have to think about what to eat at the following meal, you will be less tempted and less likely to experience cravings.”

Avoid stress

Stress can lead to food cravings, studies have reported.

Stressed individuals eat significantly more calories, and experience more cravings – especially in women.

“Furthermore, stress raises your blood levels of cortisol, a hormone that can make you gain weight, especially in the belly area.”



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Alzheimer’s SHOCK: Disease 'could be passed between humans during routine surgery'

It comes after scientists studied medical records of four people who had brain bleeds caused by a build up of amyloid, a hallmark of the incurable disease.

All had neurosurgery two or three decades earlier as children or teenagers, raising the possibility deposits may be transferred in a similar way to those who caught Mad Cow Disease from human growth hormones contaminated with infectious rogue proteins known as prions. 

Although amyloid is known as being a key indicator of Alzheimer’s, researchers did not find evidence of the disease in this study. 

However, the study by experts at University College, London, study has raised alarm. 

Professor Sebastian Brandner said: “We have found new evidence that amyloid beta pathology may be transmissible.  

"This does not mean that Alzheimer’s can be transmitted, as we did not find any significant amount of pathological tau protein which is the other hallmark protein of Alzheimer’s disease. 

"Our findings relate to neurosurgical procedures done a long time ago.

"Nevertheless, the possibility of pathological protein transmission, while rare, should factor into reviews of sterilisation and safety practices for surgical procedures.”

Researchers looked in the pathology archive at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery for biopsy and autopsy materials of young adult patients with confirmed amyloid beta pathology, which can lead to brain bleeds or harmful plaques, in the brain’s blood vessels. These deposits occur increasingly frequently in older individuals but only very rarely in younger people.

Four cases were identified – three of them were in their 30s and one was aged 57 – all of whom had experienced brain bleeds caused by amyloid deposits in brain blood vessels.  

None had any known genetic causes that predispose to this pathology in younger people.

A separate review of the medical literature supported the discovery by identifying four other case studies with similar pathology and past surgical history. 

As these patients were all men with a history of head trauma, research teams had previously speculated that those were correlated. 

The new study suggests otherwise, as all patients had a history of childhood neurosurgery, three were women and only one had a history of head trauma.

In a comparison group of 50 people of similar ages from the same archives, the researchers did not find any amyloid beta pathology and only three had a recorded history of childhood neurosurgery. 

Previous work in laboratory animals has shown that tiny amounts of abnormal amyloid beta protein can stick to steel wires and transmit pathology into the animals’ brains, but this paper is the first to suggest the same may be possible in humans. 

This study provides evidence for an association between neurosurgery in childhood and the development in late adult life of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a rare condition in which amyloid is deposited in the walls of blood vessels in the brain and leads to a higher risk of haemorrhage.

Dr David Reynolds, of Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “While it is too early to draw any firm conclusions from such a small study, the finding that people with a rare amyloid-related disease all had brain operations early in life raises the possibility of amyloid having been passed from one person to another during neurosurgery.”

In a statement The Royal College of Surgeons and the Society of British Neurological Surgeons said: “Any study that investigates potential links between contaminated neurosurgical instruments and the transmission of disease is to be welcomed, as the more we understand about eliminating risk, the greater the benefit for patients.”

The research is published in Acta Neuropathologica. 



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Type 2 diabetes symptoms? This supplement could help keep blood glucose under control

Type 2 diabetes often develops later in life and is associated with being overweight. 

With a person who has the condition, the pancreas does produce insulin, but the body stops responding to it and becomes insulin resistant. 

To overcome this resistance, the pancreas will try to produce more insulin. 

But left untreated, high glucose levels can damage blood vessels, never and organs. 

The NHS states even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn’t cause any symptoms can have long-term damaging effects. 

Your GP will recommend the best form of treatment, but simple lifestyle changes will also make a huge difference. 

A group of nutritionists have recommended five simple lifestyle tips to work into your everyday routine and help manage the condition, including adding supplement CuraLin to your diet.

Try a supplement 

If you find yourself becoming easily fatigued and you’re struggling to resist those sugar cravings, it can be worth trying a natural supplement. 

Nutritionist and fitness trainer Cassandra Barns said: “CuraLin is a specially formulated dietary supplement containing ten herbs and plant extracts traditionally used to support insulin sensitivity and help keep blood glucose under control. 

“A word of caution, however: if you’re being treated for type 2 diabetes, consult your doctor before changing your diet or exercise or starting a supplement.”

Balance your plate

One of the most important and also confusing issues when you suffer from Type-2 Diabetes is making sure you’re eating the correct foods. An effective way of managing it is to imagine each meal you eat is an entire plate. Make sure half of it is filled with non-starchy vegetables such as kale, broccoli, aubergine and asparagus. 

The majority of the rest should be made up of plenty of whole grains, lean-protein, low-fat dairy and nuts. Then add a small portion of fresh fruits and healthy fats such as avocado, cottage cheese and nut butters.

Nutritionist Pippa Campbell also advises that you try and eat protein with every meal to help prevent your energy levels from crashing during the day. 

She said: “Eating protein at each meal which will help to balance blood sugars and feel full for longer. Try eating eggs for breakfast or add some protein powder to yoghurt.”

Join a support group 

If you are struggling with your type 2 diabetes, you’re not alone. In fact your one of 3.9 million people living with the condition in the UK. This means there is plenty of support out there for you. If you’re struggling to find support in your area try asking your GP and they should be able to help you find a suitable support network.

Say no to sugar 

Nutritionist Dr Marilyn Glenville, author of Natural Alternatives to Sugar, said: “Sugar is the biggest culprit in our health in general and in particular our risks of most degenerative diseases including Type 2 diabetes.”

We often don’t realise how much sugar is found in supposedly healthy snacks, so Marilyn suggests preparing your snacks at the beginning of the week by making your own homemade granola bars with coconut sugar instead of refined sugar. 

Alternatively, apple with nut butters, crudités with hummus or low-fat Greek yoghurt with fresh berries and flaxseeds are all great snacking options.

Find an exercise you love 

Nutritionist Cassandra explained: “Staying active is vital when managing type 2 diabetes. Exercise helps the body respond to insulin, keep blood sugar levels down and manage your weight.

“You can get the greatest benefits by including both aerobic exercise such as cycling, dancing or jogging and strength training with weights or bodyweight exercises.” 

Spend some time finding an exercise you enjoy such as dancing, rambling or a group sport like netball. Even if it’s just a brisk 20 minute walk each day, anything that gets your heart rate going is great.  

See your GP as soon as possible if you think you may have diabetes. Early diagnosis and treatment for type 2 diabetes is very important as it may reduce your risk of developing complications later on.

How can you find out if you have type 2 diabetes? 



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Alzheimer's BREAKTHROUGH: Wonder drug moves step closer after undergoing human trials

Researchers have found the drug, which destroys the tau proteins that kill neurons in the brain, can dramatically slow mental decline in just nine months. 

And in some patients the rate of decline returned to that seen in elderly people with healthy brains, said scientists. 

The international study of 800 participants found a 4mg pill, taken twice daily, achieved this result. 

But in a bizarre twist the potentially revolutionary medication does not work when taken in combination with current dementia drugs that can only target symptoms - not the cause.

The drug LMTX was invented by Professor Claude Wischik from the University of Aberdeen and has been developed by TauRx Pharmaceuticals - the spin-off company he co-founded in 2002. 

The drug had been hailed as a major breakthrough in the battle against dementia after early testing showed it could slow the onset of the disease by up to two years. 

It destroys a protein called tau which - in Alzheimer's patients - breaks away from brain cells and becomes toxic, killing neurons. 

LMTX is the first drug to be developed that blocks it - offering hope to more than 520,000 people with Alzheimer's, the main form of dementia, in the UK alone. 

The latest study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease follows a similar trial earlier this year that suggested LMTX could be effective - even at such a low dose. 

It investigated its efficacy and safety in participants with mild Alzheimer's recruited across 12 countries who were given either 100 or 4 mg - intended as the control dose - twice daily over an 18-month period. 

Prof Wischik said in both those taking only LMTX or other dementia drugs as well their loss of brain cells - measured by MRI scans - initially progressed as expected for mild Alzheimer's. 

But after nine months of treatment the yearly rate of neuron loss in the former group reduced significantly. 

In fact it became typical of that reported in normal elderly controls without Alzheimer's. 

But the comparable rate seen in those also using other therapies - known as the 'add-on group' - progressed as usual for mild Alzheimer's. 

TauRx now aims to develop LMTX as a single treatment - or 'monotherapy' - of mild to moderate Alzheimer's. 

There is currently no other drug available or in prospect for the treatment of Alzheimer's capable of reversing it. 

Further randomised controlled studies of LMTX are set to commence shortly in which the 4 mg twice daily dose will be compared with placebo in patients with Alzheimer's who are not receiving other approved treatments - cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine. 

Lead author Prof Gordon Wilcock, of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences at Oxford University, said: "These data indicate the need for a further randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of low dose LMTX in patients not taking current treatments." 

But other experts said the study numbers were to small to prove the drug - known as LMTX - is an effective treatment.

Dr James Pickett, head of research at Alzheimer’s Society, said: “We have been waiting more than 15 years for a new drug for dementia. 

"Most of the drugs tested so far have targeted the Alzheimer’s hallmark amyloid protein.

“This was the first large-scale trial to target another potential culprit, the tau protein. From the results that we have seen, we cannot say that LMTX is an effective drug for Alzheimer’s.

“However we look forward to seeing other innovative approaches to drug development in dementia - including targeting treatments at more than just the amyloid protein.”



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Dementia breakthrough: Alzheimer’s disease symptoms may NOT start in brain

Dementia affects 850,000 in the UK and is a leading killer, and Alzheimer’s disease is its most common form.

The condition has long been associated with the brain since it affects memory, thinking, information processing and decision-making.

But new research suggests that it may actually begin elsewhere in the body.

A study by the University of British Columbia found that breakdowns in other areas could trigger brain-related symptoms.

In a study using mice, scientists found that an Alzheimer’s-causing protein, amyloid-beta, could travel - like cancer - to the brain from other parts of the body.

It is the first time researchers have shown that when the protein develops outside the brain it could still contribute to Alzheimer’s.

Past studies have associated amyloid-beta with cognitive decline.

In Alzheimer’s sufferers it forms clumps - or ‘plaques’ - that smother brain cells.

Amyloid-beta is produced in blood platelets, blood vessels and muscles, and its precursor protein is found in several other organs in addition to the brain.

The researchers believe that future Alzheimer’s drugs could now target the kidney or liver, and remove the toxic protein from the blood before it reaches the brain.

This may be more effective than drugs that directly target the brain, which is complex, sensitive and often hard to reach. 

It is thought that a drug could bind to amyloid-beta throughout the body in a way that allows the kidneys and liver to clear it out.

“The blood-brain barrier weakens as we age,” said Dr Weihong Song, from the University of British Columbia.

“That might allow more amyloid beta to infiltrate the brain, supplementing what is produced by the brain itself and accelerating the deterioration."

The findings suggest that Alzheimer’s is a ‘whole body’ problem, rather than one just related to the brain.

“Alzheimer's disease is clearly a disease of the brain, but we need to pay attention to the whole body to understand where it comes from, and how to stop it," added Song.



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Weight loss diet: Five EASY ways to start shedding excess Christmas pounds NOW

With Christmas over and ‘dry’ January on the horizon, shedding excess pounds is likely to be on the thoughts of most Britons in the lull before New Year’s Eve.

However, jumping from a diet of mince pies and mulled wine to one far lower in sugar and unhealthy fats can seem daunting.

“Food is there to be enjoyed as much as it is needed for nourishment,” said Lily Soutter, a nutritionist.

“However, for some Christmas can take its toll on their waistline, which can lead to that depressing January diet.”

But Soutter said that by taking some simple steps towards a healthy, balanced diet before January can prevent the need for strict calorie counting in the new year.

Here are five easy diet switches to help you begin trimming down now.

Eat breakfast

Never skip the first meal of the day, advised Soutter.

“Set yourself up for success by having a healthy but hearty breakfast,” she said. “Research has shown that those who eat breakfast tend to have a more of a balanced diet, are less likely to be overweight, lose weight more successfully and are less likely to snack unnecessarily.  

“One study has also shown that participants who consumed good quality protein at breakfast stayed ‘fuller for longer’, which in turn prevented overeating later on in the day.”

She added that you could add protein to breakfast by eating Greek yoghurt with seeds or berries, and boiled eggs on wholegrain toast.

Use up the leftovers

While ploughing through all the leftover turkey from Christmas dinner may seem like a chore, it could help your waistline.

“Turkey may be a perfect festive choice when it comes to weight management,” explained Soutter.  “This lean meat is low in calories and is a source of good quality protein. 

“Research suggests that protein may help to stave of hunger and maintains that all-important fat burning muscle mass.

“It’s also rich in tryptophan, the precursor to our happy hormone serotonin. The happier we are the more satisfied we tend to feel.

She recommended using it up in salads, burgers, stews and soups. 

The same goes for leftover potatoes, which you may be tempted to cook in goose fat, butter, lard and ghee.

“But by swapping saturated fats for monounsaturated fats such as extra-virgin olive oil, you may be one step closer to maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and better heart health,” she explained.

Pile on the winter veg

Salads are understandably the last thing you want to devour when it’s cold outside, but vegetables can be served hot too.

Soutter recommended filling your plate with lots of festive winter vegetables.

“It’s easy to eat a 400-calorie mince pie within seconds, but not so easy to eat 400 calories worth of vegetables quite so quickly - you’d be stuffed,” she said. “Vegetables are a rich source of fibre, which can help to keep hunger at bay.

“Fill at least half of your plate with them and you’ll be guaranteed to have a lower calorie and healthier dish.

“Try rainbow coloured winter veg such as vitamin A rich carrots, vitamin C rich broccoli and antioxidant rich beetroot to support immunity.”

She added cooking them with spices or roasting them with olive oil could give them a twist.

Choose the right carbs

Many people believe January diets mean low or no carbs, but Soutter pointed out that carbohydrates are important to still include in our diet - just make sure they’re the right ones.

“During the winter months, there is a tendency to gravitate towards carb-heavy, high-calorie meals to make us feel warm and cosy,” she explained.

“Filling up on refined carbohydrates such as white rice, bread, pasta, cakes and pastries may reduce fibre intake and lead blood sugar imbalances. Both can set up a cycle, which keeps appetite in motion. But there’s no need to cut carbs during winter, the key is to choose carbs with health benefits. 

“Whole grains such as brown rice, bread and pasta are a great source of fibre – an important factor for balancing blood sugar and keeping hunger at bay. 

“Whilst root vegetables, beans, lentils and chickpeas are low in calories, nutrient dense and can satisfying those stodgy, carby cravings.”

Don’t go to a New Year’s Eve party hungry

“If you’re worried about your waistline, attending parties starving hungry may be a recipe for disaster,” warned Soutter.

“Whilst there’s nothing wrong with enjoying a canapé or two, it’s important to note that they tend to be high in calories and fat, without being particularly filling. 

“Try consuming a small meal or snack before parties to line your stomach.”

If you’d still like to celebrate the beginning of 2018 with an alcoholic beverage just make sure you avoid high-calorie cocktails.

“For a lower calorie beverage try a clear spirit - such as vodka or gin - with a no sugar mixer, like sparkling water, and a squeeze of lemon or lime,” she suggested.

“With only 70 to 90 calories per glass and zero sugar, this is a top choice for those aiming for balance.”



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Diabetes diet: This is what you should eat every week to lower blood sugar

Diabetes management could be improved by eating the right foods, according to charity Diabetes UK.

The amount you should eat depends on your age, gender, and how much you exercise.

No single food contains all of the nutrients you need, so finding the right balance between different types of food is crucial, the charity said.

This is what you should eat every week to get all of your essential nutrients, and to lower your blood sugar.

Starchy foods

You should eat some starchy foods every day, the charity said.

Starchy foods are used to provide cells with energy, while also regulating the digestive system.

“Better options of starchy foods – such as wholegrain bread, wholewheat pasta and basmati, brown or wild rice – contain more fibre, which helps to keep your digestive system working well,” said Diabetes UK.

“They are generally more slowly absorbed (that is, they have a lower glycaemic index), keeping you feeling fuller for longer.”

Protein

Protein helps to build and replace muscles, while also protecting the heart.

Diabetes patients should aim to have some protein everyday, with at least one to two portions of oily fish a week.

A small handful of raw nuts and seeds is an ideal snack, while using beans and pulses in a casserole could be used to replace some of the meat.

Dairy

“Milk, cheese and yogurt contain calcium, which is vital for growing children as it keeps their bones and teeth strong,” said Diabetes UK.

“Some dairy foods are high in fat, particularly saturated fat, so choose lower-fat alternatives (check for added sugar, though).”

Aim to have some dairy everyday, but you shouldn’t have too much.

Patients could try drinking milk straight from the glass, or added to porridge.

Cottage cheese scooped on carrot sticks also provides the perfect snack for diabetics.

Fruit and vegetables

Fruit and vegetables are naturally low in fat, and are rich in vitamins, minerals and fibre.

The perfect array of fresh produce should include a rainbow of colours.

Adding just one extra handful of vegetables to your dinner could help to protect against heart disease, high blood pressure and strokes.

Fatty and sugary foods

“You can enjoy food from this group as an occasional treat in a balanced diet, but remember that sugary foods and drinks will add extra calories – and sugary drinks will raise blood glucose – so opt for diet/light or low-calorie alternatives,” said Diabetes UK.

“Fat is high in calories, so try to reduce the amount of oil or butter you use in cooking.

“Remember to use unsaturated oils, such as sunflower, rapeseed or olive oil, as these types are better for your heart.”

Patients should eat as little fatty and sugary foods as possible, the charity said.



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How to live longer REVEALED: This diet can stop you getting frail in old age

Taking a walk for a certain amount of time everyday, never retiring and just spending time in the great outdoors have all been found to boost longevity.

But now new research has revealed eating a particularly diet can lower the risk of frailty in old age. 

Eating lots of olive oil, legumes and fish are just some of the foods that should be part of your daily eating plan, according to a new study. 

And these foods are all part of the Mediterranean diet - a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy and Spain. 

The study titled ‘Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Reduces Incident Frailty Risk: System Review and Meta-Analysis’, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, found a clear association between the Mediterranean diet and incident frailty. 

But not only was there a link - the diet was found to significantly lower the risk of frailty, particularly in community-dwelling older people. 

Here are some easy ways of incorporating the Mediterranean Diet into your lifestyle. 

Oil up

Replace butter and margarine with healthy oils, such as olive oil, as often as possible. These are a good source of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats.

Go for lean protein

Swap red meat for skinless chicken, turkey, fish, beans and nuts for a healthier source of protein. These foods have less saturated fat than red meat, and fatty fish in particular provides a great source of omega 3s.

Load up on vegetables

Aim to eat lots of veg – three to eight servings a day. Opt for vegetables in a range of colours to ensure a variety of vitamins and antioxidants.

Whole grain heaven

Eat whole grains, rather than refined. Try quinoa, barley and oatmeal, and swap white bread and pasta for wholegrain alternatives.

Snack well

Change your snacking habits, choosing almonds, walnuts or sunflower seeds over processed foods packed with refined sugar. Keep your sweet tooth in check by eating fresh fruit, especially oranges and grapefruits which are crammed with vitamin C.

Don't cut out dairy

Include some milk and dairy foods, such as cheese and yoghurt. These are great sources of protein and calcium.

Take your time

Finally, people in the Mediterranean take time over their food, savouring every bite instead of shovelling it down. Giving yourself time to enjoy a meal can help you feel full up and reduce the urge to snack.

Research in the past has found the Mediterranean diet can add five years to your life. 



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Bacon, flour and mushrooms: 2018’s TOP superfoods to boost health and detox

A lot of people begin diet plans after the new year begins, to detox from the festive season’s overindulgence.

Certain foods could help to boost your overall health, according to online food retailer MuscleFood.com.

Maqui berries, cassava flour and bacon form part of the company’s top seven superfoods for 2018.

“Every year, we’re surprised by what new and exciting foods people are eating, and it’s great to see that 2018 isn’t going to be an exception,” said MuscleFood.com’s Darren Beale. 

“Cassava flour and macqui berries aren’t the usual foods you’d expect to see in the supermarket, but we recommend scoping them out as the health benefits are amazing.

“On the other hand, it may be surprising to see regular foods like bacon on the list, but it’s a staple favourite for most meat eaters, and opting for nitrate-free bacon provides an excellent source of protein.”

These are MuscleFood.com’s top superfoods for 2018:

Cassava flour

Cassava flour is a soft, gluten-free, nut-free and vegan-friendly flour. It contains saponins, chemicals which help to reduce inflammation and balance gut flora.

“While there may be other superfood flours out there which offer more nutritional value than cassava flour, it deserves a place on the list nonetheless thanks to it’s hypoallergenic properties and it’s fit for plant-based lifestyles,” said the retailer.

Superpowders

‘Superpowders’ includes turmeric, matcha, maca and cocao.

The powders have been rising in popularity, thanks to their ability to reduce arthritis pain and detox the body, scientists have claimed.

Maqui berries

These berries come from Chile and Argentina, and could be used to treat diabetes, studies have claimed.

Maqui berries could also be used to boost metabolism, reduce aging and treat cardiovascular problems, it’s been claimed.

“These tasty little berries are low in sugar and have a much milder flavour than goji or acai berries,” said MuscleFood.com. “They’re also crammed with anti-oxidants and are packed with a rainbow of vitamins.

“It’s even thought they can help regulate blood sugar levels – perfect for those of you looking for a simple way to combat sugar cravings without the dreaded insulin spike.”

Tiger nuts

“These small, raisin like nuts are brimming with filling fibre, vegetable protein, potassium and prebiotics – known to assist digestion,” said MuscleFood.com.

“They’re also a fantastic source of magnesium - a natural muscle relaxant and an essential mineral for your body to stay in tiptop shape.”

Nut oils

Almond oil, peanut oil, walnut oil and hazelnut oil could become more popular this year, the food retailer predicted.

Using the oils could reduce trans fat intake, and are better for your heart, it claimed.

Bacon

Eating a specific type of bacon could help to reduce the effects of diabetes, strokes and heart disease, claimed MuscleFood.com.

Nitrate-free bacon is an excellent source of protein, and provides the body with low-carbohydrate energy.

“It’s fair to say that bacon has had a bit of a rough go of it over the past few years, but a change is coming for 2018 and bacon will finally be recognised for the superfood it can be.”

Mushrooms

Mushrooms are crammed full of powerful anti-oxidants, vitamin D and B-vitamins, said the food retailer.

We could soon be seeing mushroom coffee, tea, health drinks, and even body products, like soap, it said.

“It seems the modest mushroom is on its way to greatness this coming year,” said MuscleFood.com.



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Are YOU struggling to concentrate? Eating these cheap foods could reduce brain fog

Stress and lack of sleep can cause mental fatigue and cloudy thoughts, according to medical website Healthline.

Brain fog isn’t necessarily a health condition itself, but a symptom of other medical conditions, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and depression.

While brain fatigue can be frustrating, it’s possible to treat it, it said.

Eating certain foods and vitamins could keep the dreaded brain fog at bay, according to Naturopathic Nutritionist Amy Morris, from Water for Health.

Oily fish

Fats in oily fish contain the highest concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, which are proven to make a positive difference to brain health and mood, said Morris.

“From pole-line and caught salmon to sardines, mackerel and trout, these healthy fats have long been recognised for being one of the best brain foods around,” she said.

“The compounds found in omega-3 have also been proven to aid the transmission of chemical signals from cell to cell, keeping us alert and more focused.”

Omega-3 supplements will also provide the benefits of eating oily fish, she added.

Dark chocolate

Dark chocolate is rich in the healthy nutrients flavanols, which help to boost brain function and its overall health.

The chocolate also contains phenylalanine - an animo acid that plays a key role in producing the hormone dopamine. Dopamine helps to relieve stress, and lift a low mood, said Morris.

“Nothing shouts Christmas like chocolate. Sometimes all it takes is a small bit of chocolate to lift your spirits, but ensure you are eating the right kind for it to have a positive impact on your brain.”

Protein

Organic free-range eggs, seeds, meats, nuts and lentils could give the body some added energy.

Protein is key to ensuring we have a strong body overall, and it’s crucial to forming hormones, organs and muscles, said the nutritionist.

“Like dark chocolate, protein also creates neurotransmitters like dopamine which helps us stay happy and relaxed throughout the busy festival season,” she said.

Vitamin B

Vitamin B helps to power the brain, and create red blood cells. It also helps to break down chemicals.

The “hidden gem” is found in green vegetables and wholegrain bread.

Morris said: “B vitamins are known to help conditions like anxiety, depression and heart disease, additionally increasing energy, enhancing our mood, improving our memory, boosting our skin and hair health, and also stimulating the immune system.”

Fermented foods

A healthy gut is key to having a fully-functioning brain.

A foggy brain could lead to serious issues within the body, including irritable bowel syndrome and stomach ulcers, said Morris.

“Fermented foods are packed full of good, live bacteria and yeasts which help to restore the natural balance of your gut, stomach and intestines.

“Foods such as kimchi, miso soup, sauerkraut, soya sauce, yogurt and tofu contain good bacteria, which have been shown to help your body naturally deal with stress and other emotions.”



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Diabetes could lead to dementia: Prevent memory loss and high blood sugar - but how?

The new research, published in the scientific journal Diabetologia, suggests that efforts to delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes could be a way to prevent cognitive decline.

Current evidence suggests that not smoking, keeping blood pressure and cholesterol in check, eating a balanced diet, drinking in moderation and staying mentally and physically active all help to maintain brain health as we ago.

So memory loss could be prevented by preventing high blood sugar levels - but what can you do to ensure your blood sugar stays at a healthy level? 

A group of doctors and nutritionists have offered Express.co.uk their best advice. 

Prevent the symptoms of dementia by preventing high blood sugar levels - but how? 

Take control - naturally 

If you find yourself becoming easily fatigued, it can be worth trying a natural supplement. 

Nutritionist and fitness trainer Cassandra Barns said: “CuraLin [avalable at www.curalife.co] is a specially formulated dietary supplement containing ten herbs and plant extracts traditionally used to support insulin sensitivity and help keep blood glucose under control. 

“A word of caution, however: if you’re being treated for type 2 diabetes, consult your doctor before changing your diet or exercise or starting a supplement.” 

CuraLin can also help with the regulation and consumption of sugary foods as its natural ingredients can reduce cravings for sugars and other processed carbohydrates, as well as helping to restrict their absorption in the blood stream.

Prevent sugar binges with protein 

Nutrition and weight loss coach Pippa Campbell said: “Eating protein at each meal will help to balance blood sugars and feel full for longer. Try eating eggs for breakfast or add some protein powder to yoghurt.” 

Keep a food diary 

Nutritionist Cassandra said: “Struggling to keep track of your eating habits? Try logging what you eat. This can help you monitor what food groups you may be over indulging in and can make it easier to control your portion size. It'll help you stay accountable for what you've eaten.”

Read before you buy 

You need to become a label reader to understand what is in the food you eat, according to Dr Marilyn Glenville.

She said: “Truly, don’t fall for the marketing hype on the front of the packet. The most important part of the food label that I check is the ingredient list. This tells me exactly what is in the food. Anything ending in 'ose' (glucose, sucrose, fructose, lactose, maltose) – is a form of sugar, as are honey, agave, molasses and syrups like corn and rice syrup, not forgetting glucose-fructose syrup (high fructose corn syrup). The higher up the ingredients list, the more sugar the product contains.”

Get personal

It’s crucial to know the foods that can cause blood sugar levels to rise, which can vary from person to person. That’s where Metabolic Balance can assist. 

Pippa said: “The aim of the Metabolic Balance Programme is to reduce insulin and inflammation. This is why the programme is perfect people with Type 2 Diabetes.  

“Not only is Metabolic Balance a programme with low GI foods it is also completely personalised. Through blood analysis of the persons biochemistry and medical history a plan can be created with all the foods that will not cause insulin spikes. This is unique to each person with diabetes. For example one client may have carrot on their food list whilst another won’t. So a seemingly healthy food may increase insulin and inflammation in one person but not another.

“I usually get my Type 2 Diabetic clients to also cut out all fruit for the first two weeks. Then we re-introduce the fruit on their plan slowly. I ask the clients to record their blood glucose levels after each meal. Within a week my clients results are incredible with reduced levels. Many eventually come off medication but I like to work with their Doctor on this.”

Swap sugar for natural alternatives

If you are making cakes, think of ways other than sugar to add sweetness, says Dr Glenville. 

She said: “For example, you could add carrots, raisins, dates, figs or bananas as natural sweeteners. Many people now make wonderful cakes from naturally sweet vegetables such as beetroot and carrot.

“For apple pies or crumbles use eating apples instead of cooking apples so you do not need to add sugar – you could always add raisins or sultanas to make a pie or crumble that little bit sweeter. Unsweetened date slice is wonderful because dates are naturally sweet. Other natural alternatives include maple syrup, barley malt syrup, brown rice syrup and stevia.” 

Don’t underestimate exercise

Staying active is vital when managing Type 2 diabetes, said Cassandra. 

She added: “Exercise helps the body respond to insulin, keep blood sugar levels down and manage your weight. You can get the greatest benefits by including both aerobic exercise such as cycling, dancing or jogging and strength training with weights or bodyweight exercises.”

Test your short-term memory with this quiz. 



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Arthritis pain? Eating these nuts could relieve your joint pain

Arthritis affects about 10 million people in the UK, according to the NHS.

Symptoms include joint pain, stiffness, muscle wasting and having warm, red skin over affected joints.

Regular exercise and watching your weight could help to prevent arthritis.

Eating nuts could also help to relieve joint pain, said Aetna International’s Director of Population Health, Dr Sneh Khemka.

“Arthritis is a tricky condition – it is difficult to predict the onset and severity of disease,” said Khemka.

“There are over 100 forms of arthritis; some are genetic, for example rheumatoid arthritis; whereas others are related to age, such as osteoarthritis.

“We can tackle arthritis by raising awareness of the symptoms and encouraging the adoption of healthy habits to help tackle these early and prevent disability.

“Nuts, including peanuts, walnuts, pistachio nuts all contain immune boosting vitamin and minerals and are beneficial to weight loss.”

Some nuts and seeds are a good source of healthy fats, protein and antioxidants.

Peanuts have the most protein, and they could help to lower heart disease risk, according to the Arthritis Foundation.

Walnuts are packed full of omega-3, and may reduce inflammation linked to arthritis.

Almonds, flaxseed and chia seeds could also help to relieve arthritis symptoms, the foundation said.

Eating a healthy, balanced diet could lower your risk of flare-ups, the NHS said.

If you’re overweight, losing weight can help you to copy with arthritis-related joint pain, it added.

Keeping active can help to reduce and prevent pain. It could also reduce stiffness, increase muscle strength and boost your range of movement.

Some painkillers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be used to treat arthritis.



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